词汇表

最近更新时间:2024年01月23日

A

Adaptation 适应

The process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects.In human systems, adaptation seeks to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. In some natural systems, human intervention may facilitate adjustment to expected climate and its effects.

适应是一种针对实际或预期气候及其影响的调整过程。在人类系统中,适应旨在减轻或避免伤害,或者利用有益的机会。在某些自然系统中,人类干预可能促进对预期气候及其影响的调整。

Aerosol 气溶胶

A suspension of airborne solid or liquid particles, with a typical size between a few nanometres and 10 μm that reside in the atmosphere for at least several hours. Aerosols may be of either natural or anthropogenic origin. Aerosols may influence climate in several ways: through both interactions that scatter and/or absorb radiation and through interactions with cloud microphysics and other cloud properties, or upon deposition on snow or ice covered surfaces thereby altering their albedo and contributing to climate feedback.

悬浮在大气中至少数小时的固体或液体颗粒的悬浮物,其典型尺寸在几纳米到10微米之间。气溶胶可以是自然生成的,也可以是人为产生的。气溶胶通过多种途径影响气候,包括辐射的散射和/或吸收相互作用,与云微物理和其他云特性的相互作用,以及在积雪或冰覆盖表面沉积,从而改变它们的反照率并对气候反馈产生影响。

Afforestation 造林

Afforestation is the process of planting trees in areas that have not been forested in recent history. Afforestation helps restore abandoned and degraded agricultural lands, prevent desertification, create carbon sinks, and generate new economic opportunities for local communities.

是在过去未被森林覆盖的区域种植树木的过程。造林有助于恢复被遗弃和退化的农业土地,防止沙漠化,创造碳汇,并为当地社区提供新的经济机会。

Atmosphere 大气

The gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth, divided into five layers — the troposphere which contains half of the Earth’s atmosphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere, and the exosphere, which is the outer limit of the atmosphere. The dry atmosphere consists almost entirely of nitrogen (78.1% volume mixing ratio) and oxygen (20.9% volume mixing ratio), together with a number of trace gases, such as argon (0.93 % volume mixing ratio), helium and radiatively active greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO₂) (0.04% volume mixing ratio) and ozone (O₃). In addition, the atmosphere contains the GHG water vapour (H₂O),whose amounts are highly variable but typically around 1% volume mixing ratio. The atmosphere also contains clouds and aerosols. See also Carbon dioxide (CO₂), Ozone(O₃), Troposphere, Stratosphere, Greenhouse gas (GHG), and Hydrological cycle.

大气,是围绕地球的气体包层,分为五层–对流层(占地球大气的一半)、平流层、中间层、热层和外逸层(大气的外缘)。干大气几乎完全由氮(占体积混合比的78.1%)和氧(占体积混合比的20.9%)构成,还包括一些微量气体,如氩(占体积混合比的0.93%)、氦以及对辐射有影响的温室气体(GHGs),如二氧化碳(CO₃)(占体积混合比的0.035%)和臭氧(O₃)。此外,大气包括温室气体(GHG)水汽(H₂O),它的含量变化很大,但通常约占体积混合比的1%。

Anthropogenic emissions 人为排放

Emissions of greenhouse gases(GHGs), precursors of GHGs and aerosols caused by human activities.These activities include the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, land use and land-use changes (LUC), livestock production, fertilisation,waste management, and industrial processes. See also Anthropogenic removals.

人类活动引起的温室气体、温室气体前体和气溶胶的排放。这些活动包括燃烧化石燃料、砍伐森林(deforestation)、土地利用(land use)和土地利用的变化(land-use changes (LUC))、畜牧业生产、施肥、废物管理和工业过程。

Anthropogenic removals 人为去除

The withdrawal of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the atmosphere as a result of deliberate human activities. These include enhancing biological sinks of CO₂ and using chemical engineering to achieve long term removal and storage. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) from industrial and energy-related sources, which alone does not remove CO₂ from the atmosphere, can help reduce atmospheric CO₂ if it is combined with bioenergy production (BECCS).

由人类有意开展的撤离大气中温室气体(GHGs)的过程。这些活动包括增强CO₂的生物吸收和利用化学工程实现长期去除和储存。从工业和能源相关源捕获和储存二氧化碳(CCS),单独而言并未将CO₂从大气中去除,但如果与生物能源生产(BECCS)结合使用,可以帮助减少大气中的CO₂。

Avoided emissions 规避排放

Avoided emissions refer to the "positive" impact on society when comparing the GHG impact of a solution to an alternative reference scenario (see Section 4 of Guidance on Avoided Emissions for the detailed calculation). An avoided emission is thus the difference between GHG emissions that occur or will occur (the "solution") and GHG emissions that would have occurred without the solution (that of the reference scenario). GHG emissions of both the solution and the reference shall be assessed throughout their entire life cycle. Unlike GHG inventory assessments, which focus on the variation of a company’s inventory emissions between two points over time, avoided emissions focus on the difference in emissions between two scenarios – one associated with the solution (the one that will be taking place), and one associated with the reference scenario, calculated for a specified time interval.

规避排放是指在比较解决方案的温室气体(GHG)影响与替代参考情景时,对社会产生的“积极”影响(详见wbcsd:Guidance on Avoided Emissions第4节的详细计算)。因此,规避排放是指考虑整个生命周期,解决方案导致的温室气体排放与在没有解决方案的情况下可能发生的温室气体排放(即参考情景)之间的差异。解决方案和参考情景的温室气体排放应该在它们的整个生命周期内进行评估。与温室气体清单评估侧重于公司清单排放在两个时间点之间的变化的情况不同,规避排放关注的是两种情景之间排放的差异,一种情景与解决方案相关(即将发生的情况),另一种情景与参考情景相关,计算适定时间间隔内的情况。

B

Baseline 基准线

Quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and/or GHG removals of a subject for a base period. Note 1 to entry: The baseline is used when quantifying changes in the carbon footprint over time and towards targets in the carbon neutrality management plan. Note 2 to entry: In a case where the base period cannot be determined, e.g. for a one-off event, the baseline can be estimated on the basis of a reference situation that best represents the conditions most likely to occur in the absence of climate change mitigation activities.

基准线,即主体(subject)在基准期内的温室气体(GHG)排放和/或温室气体去除的数量。 注释1:基准线用于量化随时间变化的碳足迹(carbon footprint)以及达到碳中和管理计划中的目标。 注释2:在无法确定基准线的情况下,例如一次性事件,基准可以根据最能代表在没有减缓气候变化(climate change mitigation)活动的情况下,最有可能发生的条件来估算。

Base period 基期

Specific, historical period identified for the purpose of comparing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or GHG removals or other GHG-related information over time.

为了比较随时间变化的温室气体(GHG)排放、GHG去除(GHG removals)或其他GHG相关信息的特定时期。

Blue economy 蓝色经济

The "blue economy" concept seeks to promote economic development, social inclusion, and the preservation or improvement of livelihoods while at the same time ensuring environmental sustainability of the oceans and coastal areas. Blue economy has diverse components, including established traditional ocean industries such as fisheries, tourism, and maritime transport, but also new and emerging activities, such as offshore renewable energy, aquaculture, seabed extractive activities, and marine biotechnology.

“蓝色经济”旨在推动经济发展、社会包容,同时确保海洋和沿海地区的环境可持续性,以维护或改善生计。蓝色经济包括多元的组成部分,包括传统的海洋产业,如渔业、旅游和海运,同时也包括新兴活动,如海上可再生能源、水产养殖、海底开采活动和海洋生物技术。

Blue carbon 蓝碳

All biologically-driven carbon fluxes and storage in marine systems that are amenable to management can be considered as blue carbon. Coastal blue carbon focuses on rooted vegetation in the coastal zone, such as tidal marshes, mangroves and seagrasses. These ecosystems have high carbon burial rates on a per unit area basis and accumulate carbon in their soils and sediments. They provide many non-climatic benefits and can contribute to ecosystem-based adaptation. If degraded or lost, coastal blue carbon ecosystems are likely to release most of their carbon back to the atmosphere. There is current debate regarding the application of the blue carbon concept to other coastal and non-coastal processes and ecosystems, including the open ocean.

所有在海洋系统中受管理的生物驱动的碳通量和储存都可以被视为蓝碳。沿海蓝碳侧重于沿海地区的有根植被,如潮汐沼泽、红树林和海草。这些生态系统在单位面积上具有较高的碳埋藏率,并在它们的土壤和沉积物中积累碳。它们提供许多非气候利益,并可以促进基于生态系统的适应。如果受损或丧失,沿海蓝碳生态系统可能会释放大部分碳返回大气中。目前关于将蓝碳概念应用于其他沿海和非沿海过程和生态系统(包括公海)存在争议。

Black carbon 黑碳

A relatively pure form of carbon, also known as soot, arising from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel, and biomass. It stays in the atmosphere only for days or weeks. Black carbon is a climate forcing agent with strong warming effect, both in the atmosphere and when deposited on snow or ice. See also Atmosphere, and Aerosol.

黑碳是一种相对纯净的碳形式,也被称为煤烟,产生于化石燃料、生物燃料和生物质的不完全燃烧过程。它在大气中只停留数天或数周。黑碳是一种气候强迫剂,具有强烈的增暖效应,无论是在大气中还是在积雪或冰上沉积时。另请参阅大气和气溶胶。

Boundary 边界

<organization> grouping of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or GHG removals reported from within the organizational boundary as well as those significant indirect GHG emissions that are a consequence of the organization’s operations and activities. Note 1 to entry: "Organizational boundary" and "significant indirect GHG emissions" are defined in ISO 14064-1. Note 2 to entry: In this document, the term "boundary" is equivalent to "reporting boundary" in ISO 14064-1.

边界,组织的温室气体(GHG)排放或GHG去除的汇总,包括来自组织边界内的以及作为组织运营和活动结果的那些重要的间接GHG排放。 注释1:ISO 14064-1中定义了“组织边界”和“重要的间接温室气体排放”。 注释2:在本文件中,“边界”一词等同于ISO 14064-1中的“报告边界”。

C

Cancún Agreements 坎昆协议

A set of decisions adopted at the 16th Session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), including the following, among others: the newly established Green Climate Fund (GCF), a newly established technology mechanism, a process for advancing discussions on adaptation, a formal process for reporting mitigation commitments, a goal of limiting global mean surface temperature increase to 2°C and an agreement on MRV—Measurement, Reporting and Verification for those countries that receive international support for their mitigation efforts. {WGIII}

在联合国气候变化框架公约(UNFCCC)第16次缔约方大会(COP)上通过的一系列决定,其中包括以下内容 新设立的绿色气候基金(GCF)、新建立的技术机制、一个推动有关适应讨论的进程、一个报告减缓承诺的正式程序、一项把全球地表平均温度升幅限制在2°C以内的全球目标,以及一项针对那些在减缓努力方面接受国际支持国家的有关测量、报告和核查(MRV)的协议。

Carbon budget 碳预算

This term refers to three concepts in the literature: (1) an assessment of carbon cycle sources and sinks on a global level, through the synthesis of evidence for fossil fuel and cement emissions, land-use change emissions, ocean and land CO₂ sinks, and the resulting atmospheric CO₂ growth rate. This is referred to as the global carbon budget; (2) the estimated cumulative amount of global carbon dioxide emissions that that is estimated to limit global surface temperature to a given level above a reference period, taking into account global surface temperature contributions of other GHGs and climate forcers; (3) the distribution of the carbon budget defined under (2) to the regional, national, or sub-national level based on considerations of equity, costs or efficiency. See also Remaining carbon budget.

碳预算涉及(1) 通过综合研究化石燃料和水泥排放、土地利用变化排放、海洋和陆地CO₂吸收以及由此产生的大气CO₂增长速率,对全球碳循环的来源和汇进行评估。这被称为全球碳预算;(2)估计全球二氧化碳累积排放量,据估计这将限制全球表面温度在给定参考期以上的水平,考虑其他温室气体和气候因子对全球表面温度的贡献;(3)根据公平性、成本或效率的考虑,将在(2)下定义的碳预算分配到区域、国家或亚国家水平。另请参阅剩余碳预算。

Carbon capture 碳捕获

Carbon capture and storage is the process of trapping carbon emissions produced by fossil fuel power plants or other industrial processes before they can enter our atmosphere by storing them deep underground. Carbon capture and storage should not be seen as an alternative to the green energy transition, but it has been proposed as a way to tackle emissions from sectors that are difficult to decarbonize, particularly heavy industries like cement, steel, and chemicals.

碳捕获与储存是一种在化石燃料电厂或其他工业过程产生的碳排放进入大气之前,通过将其储存在地下深处来捕获的过程。碳捕获与储存不应被视为绿色能源转型的替代方案,但已被提议作为应对难以脱碳的部门(尤其是水泥、钢铁和化工等重工业)排放的一种方式。

Carbon credit 碳信用

Tradeable certificate representing one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent from GHG emission reductions or GHG removal enhancements. Note 1 to entry: An entity can retire a carbon credit without using it for offsetting. Note 2 to entry: Carbon credits can be of different types: avoidance credits, reduction credits or removal credits. Note 3 to entry: Carbon credits used for carbon neutrality claims are generated outside the boundary of the subject.

碳信用,可交易的证书,代表来自温室气体排放减少(GHG emission reductions)或温室气体去除增强(GHG removal enhancements)的一吨二氧化碳当量(carbon dioxide equivalent )。 注释1:实体(entity )可以在不将碳信用用于抵消的情况下注销一份碳信用(offsetting)。 注释2:碳信用可以分为不同类型:避免信用、减少信用或去除信用。 注释3:用于碳中和声明(carbon neutrality claims)的碳信用是在主体(subject)边界(boundary)外生成的。

Climate crisis 气候危机

The climate crisis refers to the serious problems that are being caused, or are likely to be caused, by changes in the planet’s climate, including weather extremes and natural disasters, ocean acidification and sea-level rise, loss of biodiversity, food and water insecurity, health risks, economic disruption, displacement, and even violent conflict. Since the 1800s, human activities have caused the Earth’s average temperature to increase by about 1.2° C – with more than two-thirds of this warming occurring since 1975. This is already causing significant damage to human societies and natural ecosystems in many parts of the world. More than 3 billion people live in places that are very vulnerable to the climate crisis, with lower income countries being disproportionately affected.

气候危机指的是由地球气候变化引起或可能引起的严重问题,包括极端天气和自然灾害、海洋酸化和海平面上升、生物多样性丧失、粮食和水资源不安全、健康风险、经济混乱、人口迁徙,甚至暴力冲突。 自19世纪以来,人类活动导致地球平均温度上升约1.2摄氏度,其中三分之二以上的升温发生在1975年以后。这已经对世界许多地区的人类社会和自然生态系统造成了严重破坏。超过30亿人口生活在非常容易受到气候危机影响的地方,低收入国家受到的影响尤为严重。

Carbon crediting programme 碳信用计划

Greenhouse gas (GHG) programme that issues carbon credits . Note 1 to entry: The carbon credits shall conform to the criteria established by the programme as well as the requirements of this document (see ISO 14068-1:2023 Clause 11).

发行碳信用的温室气体计划(GHG programme)。 注释1:碳信用必须符合计划制定的标准,同时符合本文件的要求(参见ISO 14068-1:2023第11条款)。

Carbon cycle 碳循环

The term used to describe the flow of carbon (in various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide (CO₂), carbon in biomass, and carbon dissolved in the ocean as carbonate and bicarbonate) through the atmosphere, hydrosphere, terrestrial and marine biosphere and lithosphere.

这个术语用于描述碳(各种形式存在的,例如二氧化碳(CO₂)、生物质中的碳以及海洋中以碳酸盐和碳酸氢根形式存在的碳)在大气层、水圈、陆地和海洋生物圈以及岩石圈中的流动。

Carbon dioxide (CO₂) 二氧化碳

A naturally occurring gas, CO₂ is also a by product of burning fossil fuels (such as oil, gas and coal), of burning biomass, of land-use changes (LUC) and of industrial processes (e.g., cement production). It is the principal anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) that affects the Earth’s radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other GHGs are measured and therefore has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 1. See also Greenhouse gas (GHG), Land use, and Land-use change.

二氧化碳(CO₂)是一种自然存在的气体,也是燃烧化石燃料(如石油、天然气和煤炭)、燃烧生物质、土地利用变化(LUC)和工业过程(例如水泥生产)的副产品。它是主要的人为产生的温室气体(GHG),影响地球的辐射平衡。它是其他温室气体测量的参考气体,因此具有1的全球变暖潜力(GWP)。另请参阅温室气体(GHG)、土地利用和土地利用变化。

Carbon dioxide equivalent(CO₂e) 二氧化碳当量

Unit for expressing the radiative forcing of a greenhouse gas (GHG) in relation to that of carbon dioxide. Note 1 to entry: The carbon dioxide equivalent is calculated by multiplying the mass of a given GHG by its global warming potential.

二氧化碳当量(CO₂e)是用于表示与二氧化碳相比的温室气体(GHG)辐射强迫的单位。(二氧化碳当量的计算是通过将给定GHG的质量乘以其全球变暖潜能(GWP)来实现。)

Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) 碳捕获与储存

A process in which a relatively pure stream of carbon dioxide (CO₂) from industrial and energy-related sources is separated (captured), conditioned, compressed and transported to a storage location for long-term isolation from the atmosphere. Sometimes referred to as Carbon Capture and Storage. See also Carbon dioxide capture and utilisation(CCU), Bioenergy with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS), and Sequestration.

碳捕获与储存是一种过程,通过该过程,从工业和能源相关源产生的相对纯净的二氧化碳(CO₂)流被分离、处理、压缩,然后运输到储存位置,以实现对其在大气中的长期隔离。有时也被称为碳捕获与储存(Carbon Capture and Storage)。另外,还请参阅二氧化碳捕获与利用(CCU)、具有二氧化碳捕获和储存的生物能源(BECCS)以及封存。

Carbon dioxide capture and utilisation (CCU) 碳捕获与利用

A process in which carbon dioxide (CO₂) is captured and then used to produce a new product. If the CO₂ is stored in a product for a climate-relevant time horizon, this is referred to as carbon dioxide capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS). Only then, and only combined with CO₂ recently removed from the atmosphere, can CCUS lead to carbon dioxide removal. CCU is sometimes referred to as Carbon dioxide capture and use. See also Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS).

碳捕获与利用是一种过程,其中二氧化碳(CO₂)被捕获然后用于生产新产品。如果CO₂在产品中储存并具有与气候相关的时间跨度,这被称为二氧化碳捕获、利用和储存(CCUS)。只有在这种情况下,并且只有与最近从大气中去除的CO₂结合使用时,CCUS才能实现二氧化碳的去除。另请参阅二氧化碳捕获与储存(CCS)。

Carbon dioxide capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) 碳捕获、利用与储存

See Carbon dioxide capture and utilisation (CCU).

参见二氧化碳捕获和利用(CCU)。

Carbon footprint 碳足迹

Sum of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and GHG removals of the subject (organization or product )expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents.

个人、组织或产品的温室气体排放(GHG emissions reduction)和温室气体去除(carbon removal)之和,以二氧化碳当量( carbon dioxide equivalents)表示。

Carbon footprint of a product (CFP) 产品碳足迹

Sum of GHG emissions and GHG removals in a product system , expressed as CO₂e quivalents and based on a life cycle assessment using the single impact category of climate change. Note 1 to entry: A CFP can be disaggregated into a set of figures identifying specific GHG emissions and removals. A CFP can also be disaggregated into the stages of the life cycle. Note 2 to entry: The results of the quantification of the CFP are documented in the CFP study report expressed in mass of CO₂e per functional unit .

在产品系统中,温室气体(GHG)排放和温室气体去除的总和,以二氧化碳当量为单位,并基于气候变化的单一影响类别进行的生命周期评估计算。 注1:碳足迹可以细分为一组数字,用于确定特定的温室气体排放和去除。碳足迹也可以细分为生命周期的各个阶段。 注2:碳足迹的量化结果记录在碳足迹研究报告中,以每功能单元的CO₂e质量为单位表达。

Carbon farming 碳农业

Carbon farming refers to sequestering and storing carbon and/or reducing greenhouse gas emissions at farm level. It offers significant but uncertain mitigation potential in the EU, can deliver co-benefits to farmers and society, but also carries risks that need to be managed.

碳农业是指在农场层面封存和储存碳和/或减少温室气体排放。在欧盟,碳农业具有显著但不确定的减缓潜力,可以为农民和社会提供共同利益,但也带有需要管理的风险。

Carbon finance 碳金融

Carbon finance is the generic name for the revenue streams generated by projects from the sale of their greenhouse gas emission reductions, or from trading in carbon permits.

碳金融是指出售温室气体减排量或参与碳排放许可证交易,并从中获得现金流收支的活动的统称。

Carbon markets 碳市场

Carbon markets are trading schemes that create financial incentives for activities that reduce or remove greenhouse gas emissions. In these schemes, emissions are quantified into carbon credits that can be bought and sold. One tradable carbon credit equals one tonne of carbon dioxide, or the equivalent amount of a different greenhouse gas reduced, sequestered or avoided.

碳市场是创造金融激励以减少或清除温室气体排放的交易方案。在这些方案中,排放被量化成可以买卖的碳信用额度。一个可交易的碳信用额度等于一吨二氧化碳,或者等于减少、封存或避免的其他温室气体相应数量。

Carbon neutral 碳中和

Condition in which, during a specified period of time, the carbon footprint has been reduced as a result of greenhouse gas(GHG) emission reductions or GHG removal enhancements and, if greater than zero, is then counterbalanced by offsetting. Note 1 to entry: Carbon credits used for offsetting shall meet certain criteria (see ISO 14068-1:2023 Clause 11) and are only used after GHG emission reductions and GHG removal enhancements have been made in line with the carbon neutrality management plan. Note 2 to entry: The specified period of time is a finite number of years, for organizations, or the full or partial life cycle, for products.

碳中和,在指定的一段时间内,由于温室气体(GHG emission )排放减少或温室气体去除(GHG removal)增强使碳足迹(carbon footprint)减少。如果减少值大于零,则通过抵消(offsetting)来平衡。 注释1:用于抵消的碳信用须符合一定的标准(参见ISO 14068-1:2023 第11条),仅在与碳中和管理计划一致的温室气体减排和温室气体去除增强之后使用。 注释2:对于组织来说,指定的时间期限是有限的年数;对于产品来说,是完整或部分的生命周期。

Carbon neutrality 碳中性

State of being carbon neutral. Note 1 to entry: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) distinguishes between carbon neutrality, a condition in which CO₂emissions are balanced by CO₂ removals, and greenhouse gas (GHG) neutrality, in which all GHG emissions are balanced by GHG removals. The definition of carbon neutrality in this document is equivalent to the IPCC definition of GHG neutrality.

是指处于碳中和(carbon neutral)的状态。 (注1:气候变化政府间专门委员会(IPCC)区分碳中和(carbon neutrality)与温室气体中和(GHG neutrlity),前者为二氧化碳排放与二氧化碳去除相平衡的状态,后者为所有温室气体排放(GHG emissions)与温室气体去除(GHG removals)相平衡的状态。

Carbon offsets 碳抵消

Carbon offsets are tradable “rights” or certificates linked to activities that lower the amount of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere. By buying these certificates, a person or group can fund projects that fight climate change, instead of taking actions to lower their own carbon emissions. In this way, the certificates “offset” the buyer’s CO(2) emissions with an equal amount of CO(2) reductions somewhere else.

碳抵消是与降低大气中二氧化碳(CO₂)数量相关的可交易的“权利”或证书。通过购买这些证书,个人或团体可以资助旨在对抗气候变化的项目,而无需采取降低自身碳排放的行动。通过这种方式,证书在其他地方以相等数量的CO₂减排“抵消”了购买者的CO₂排放。

Carbon sequestration 碳封存

The process of storing carbon in a carbon pool. See also Blue carbon, Carbon dioxide capture and storage(CCS), and Sink.

将碳储存到碳库中的过程。另请参阅蓝碳(Blue carbon)、二氧化碳捕获与储存(CCUS)、吸收和汇(Sink)。

Carbon sink 碳汇

A carbon sink is any process, activity, or mechanism that absorbs more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than it releases. Forests, oceans, and soil are the world’s largest natural carbon sinks. Oceans absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through marine ecosystems and the plant and animal life they harbor. Sequestering carbon in marine ecosystems is generally referred to as blue carbon. Forests and soil are the other main natural carbon sinks of the planet, storing carbon in trees and vegetation, wetlands and peat bogs, and plant litter.

碳汇是指任何吸收大气中二氧化碳多于释放的过程、活动或机制。森林、海洋和土壤是世界上最大的自然碳汇。海洋通过海洋生态系统和它们所包含的植物和动物吸收大气中的二氧化碳。在海洋生态系统中储存碳通常被称为蓝碳。森林和土壤是地球上其他主要的自然碳汇,通过树木和植被、湿地和泥炭沼泽以及植物凋落物来储存碳。

Carbon tax 碳税

A levy on the carbon content of fossil fuels. Because virtually all of thecarbon in fossil fuels is ultimately emitted as carbon dioxide (CO₂), a carbon tax is equivalent to an emission tax on CO₂emissions {WGIII}.

对化石燃料的碳含量征税。由于化石燃料中几乎所有的碳最终都以二氧化碳(CO₂)的形式排放,因此碳税相当于对二氧化碳排放征收排放税。

Cancún Pledges 坎昆承诺

During 2010, many countries submitted their existing plans for controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the Climate Change Secretariat and these proposals have now been formally acknowledged under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC). Developed countries presented their plans in the shape of economy-wide targets to reduce emissions, mainly up to 2020, while developing countries proposed ways to limit their growth of emissions in the shape of plans of action. {WGIII}

许多国家在2010年期间向气候变化秘书处提交了本国现有的温室气体排放控制计划,这些建议现已在联合国气候变化框架公约(UNFCCC)下予以了正式承认。工业化国家以整体经济部门减排目标的形式提出了自身的计划,时限大多到2020年,而发展中国家以行动计划的形式提出了限制排放增长的方式。

Carbon removal 碳去除

Carbon removal is the process of removing greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere, through natural solutions such as reforestation and soil management or technological solutions like direct air capture and enhanced mineralization. Carbon removal is not a substitute for cutting greenhouse gas emissions, but it can slow down climate change and is necessary to shorten any period during which we temporarily overshoot our climate targets.

碳去除是通过自然解决方案(如重新造林和土壤管理)或技术解决方案(如直接空气捕集和强化矿化)从大气中去除温室气体排放的过程。碳去除并不是减少温室气体排放的替代方法,但它可以减缓气候变化,并且在我们暂时超过气候目标的任何时期都是必要的。

Certified emission reductions(CERs) 核证减排量

A unit of emission reduction generated by a CDM project. CERs are tradable commodities that can be (CERs) used by Annex 1 countries to meet their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.

CDM 项目产生的减排量单位。CERs 是可被附件一国家履行《京都议定书》减排承诺的可交易商品。

Chinese certified emission reduction(CCER) 中国核证自愿减排量

CCER refers to the quantified and verified greenhouse gas emission reduction effects of specific projects within China, registered in the national voluntary greenhouse gas emission reduction trading registration system. These emission reduction credits can be used for offsetting by regulated entities during compliance or for other purposes.

指对我国境内特定项目的温室气体减排效果进行量化核证,并在国家温室气体自愿减排交易注册登记系统中登记的温室气体减排量,可用于控排企业清缴履约时的抵消或其他用途。

Clean development mechanism(CDM) 清洁发展机制

A mechanism established by Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol for project-based emission reduction activities in developing countries. The CDM is designed to meet two main objectives: to address the sustainability needs of the host country and to increase the opportunities available to Annex 1 Parties to meet their GHG reduction commitments. The CDM allows for the creation, acquisition and transfer of CERs from climate change mitigation projects undertaken in non-Annex 1 countries.

《京都议定书》第12章中规定的由发展中国家参与的基于温室气体项目减排的机制。该机制用来实现两个主要目标 :实现项目东道国的可持续发展并帮助附件一国家以低成本实现减排承诺。清洁发展机制允许非附件一国家通过减缓气候变化的项目创造、获得并交易由项目产生的核证减排量(CERs)。

Circular economy 循环经济

Circular economy refers to models of production and consumption that minimize waste and reduce pollution, promote sustainable uses of natural resources, and help regenerate nature. Circular economy approaches are all around us. They can be employed in a number of different sectors from textiles to buildings and construction, and at various stages of a product’s lifecycle, including design, manufacturing, distribution, and disposal.

循环经济是指生产和消费的模式,旨在最小化废物和减少污染,促进对自然资源的可持续利用,并帮助实现自然的再生。循环经济的方法无处不在。它们可以在从纺织品到建筑和建设等多个不同行业中应用,可以在产品的生命周期的各个阶段,包括设计、制造、分销和处理中使用。

Climate change 气候变化

Climate change refers to the long-term changes in the Earth’s climate that are warming the atmosphere, ocean and land. Climate change is affecting the balance of ecosystems that support life and biodiversity, and impacting health. It also causes more extreme weather events, such as more intense and/or frequent hurricanes, floods, heat waves, and droughts, and leads to sea level rise and coastal erosion as a result of ocean warming, melting of glaciers, ad loss of ice sheets.

气候变化是指地球气候长期变化,影响大气、海洋和陆地。气候变化正在影响支持生命和生物多样性的生态系统平衡,并对健康产生影响。它还导致更极端的天气事件,例如更强烈和/或更频繁的飓风、洪水、热浪和干旱,以及由于海洋变暖、冰川融化和冰盖减少而导致的海平面上升和海岸侵蚀。

Climate change mitigation 减缓气候变化

Human intervention to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or enhance GHG removals.

人类采取措施来减少温室气体(GHG)排放或增强GHG去除效果。

Climate finance 气候金融

Climate finance refers to financial resources and instruments that are used to support action on climate change. Climate finance is critical to addressing climate change because of the large-scale investments that are needed to transition to a low-carbon global economy and to help societies build resilience and adapt to the impacts of climate change.
Climate finance can come from different sources, public or private, national or international, bilateral or multilateral. It can employ different instruments such as grants and donations, green bonds, debt swaps, guarantees, and concessional loans. And it can be used for different activities, including mitigation, adaptation, and resilience-building.

气候融资是指用于支持应对气候变化的行动的金融资源和工具。由于需要大规模的投资来实现向低碳全球经济的过渡,并帮助社会增强韧性并适应气候变化的影响,气候融资对于解决气候变化至关重要。
气候融资可以来自不同的来源,包括公共或私人、国家或国际、双边或多边。它可以采用不同的工具,如赠款和捐赠、绿色债券、债务置换、担保和有利贷款。而且可以用于不同的活动,包括减缓、适应和增强韧性。

Climate justice 气候正义

Climate justice means putting equity and human rights at the core of decision-making and action on climate change.
One aspect of climate justice relates to the unequal historical responsibility that countries bear in relation to the climate crisis. The concept suggests that the countries, industries, and businesses that have become wealthy from activities that emitted the most greenhouse gas emissions have a responsibility to help mitigate the impacts of climate change on those affected, particularly the most vulnerable countries and communities, who often are the ones that have contributed the least to the crisis.

气候正义意味着将公平和人权置于决策和应对气候变化行动的核心位置。
气候正义的一个方面涉及到各国在气候危机中所承担的不平等历史责任。该概念表明,那些通过排放最多温室气体而变得富裕的国家、产业和企业有责任帮助减缓气候变化对一些地区的影响,尤其是对那些最脆弱的国家和社区的影响,而这些地区往往是在气候危机中贡献最少的。

Climate overshoot 气候过冲

Under the Paris Agreement, countries are expected to take the necessary measures to avoid dangerous climate change by limiting global warming to well below 2°C and pursuing efforts to limit it to 1.5°C. But even best-case scenarios now indicate a significant chance of overshooting these goals, even if temporarily. Climate overshoot refers to the period during which warming will have increased past 1.5° C, before falling back down. This period will probably occur around the middle of this century, but troubling signs are emerging that it may occur even earlier.
The longer the climate overshoot lasts, the more dangerous the world will become. A prolonged period of higher global temperatures will have devastating and irreversible impacts on natural ecosystems, biodiversity, and human communities, particularly in dry areas, coastal zones, and other vulnerable locations. Making deep emission cuts during this decade is of extreme importance to limiting the duration and impacts of the climate overshoot.

根据《巴黎协定》,各国被期望采取必要措施,通过将全球变暖控制在2摄氏度以下,并努力将其限制在1.5摄氏度以内,以避免危险的气候变化。但即使在最佳情况下,现在的预测也表明存在明显的超过这些目标的可能性,即使是暂时性的。 “气候过冲”指的是在温暖程度已经超过1.5摄氏度的时期,然后再回落。这一时期可能会在本世纪中叶左右发生,但令人担忧的迹象表明,它甚至可能在更早的时候发生。 “气候过冲”的持续时间越长,世界就会变得越危险。长时间的全球气温升高将对自然生态系统、生物多样性和人类社区产生毁灭性且不可逆转的影响,尤其是在干旱地区、沿海地带和其他脆弱地区。在本十年内进行深度减排对于限制气候超出的持续时间和影响至关重要。

Climate security 气候安全

Climate security refers to evaluating, managing, and reducing the risks to peace and stability brought on by the climate crisis. This means ensuring that climate mitigation and adaptation goes beyond doing no harm and contributes positively to peace and stability. It also means that conflict prevention and peacebuilding interventions take climate impacts into account.

气候安全是指评估、管理和减少由气候危机带来的对和平与稳定的风险。这意味着确保气候缓解和适应不仅仅是防止造成伤害,而且对和平与稳定起到积极的贡献。这还意味着在冲突预防和和平建设干预中考虑气候影响。

Cradle to gate 从摇篮到大门

All emissions that occur in the life cycle of purchased products, up to the point of receipt by the reporting company (excluding emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the reporting company).

外购产品在其寿命周期中的全部排放,至报告企业收到的时点为止(不包括由报告企业拥有或控制的排放源的排放)。

Cradle to cradle 从摇篮到摇篮

“Cradle to Cradle” is about seeing garbage as an eternal resource and doing the right thing from the beginning. It is about making community and product development function in the same way as a healthy ecological system where all resources are used effectively, and in a cyclical way (as opposed to the current linear system that can be better described as a Cradle to Grave system).

“从摇篮到摇篮”意味着将“垃圾”视为永久的资源,从产品生产初期就考虑到其最终的走向。它旨在使社区和产品开发像健康的生态系统一样运作,确保所有资源都被有效循环利用,做到整个过程全面监管、监控。与当前线性系统(更像是从摇篮到坟墓的系统)形成鲜明对比。

Cradle to grave 从摇篮到坟墓

“Cradle to grave” assessment considers impacts at each stage of a product's life-cycle, from the time natural resources are extracted from the ground and processed through each subsequent stage of manufacturing, transportation, product use, and ultimately, disposal.

“从摇篮到坟墓”评估考虑产品生命周期的每个阶段的影响,从自然资源从地下提取并经过制造的各个后续阶段,包括运输、产品使用,最终到处理处置。

COP 缔约方会议

The annual United Nations conference dedicated to climate change, called “the Conference of the Parties” or “COP,” has been organized under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) since 1995. At the 21st COP, or COP21, which took place in 2015, the Paris Agreement was signed. The conference now brings together all nations who are parties to the Paris Agreement to discuss their next steps to combat climate change and further establish legally binding agreements to support climate action.

自1995年以来,根据《联合国气候变化框架公约》(UNFCCC)组织了专门讨论气候变化的年度联合国会议,称为“缔约方会议”(the Conference of the Parties)或“COP”。在2015年举行的第21届缔约方会议上,签署了《巴黎协定》。COP28将《巴黎协定》的所有缔约国聚集在一起,讨论应对气候变化的下一步措施,并进一步制定具有法律约束力的协议,以支持气候行动。

D

Decarbonization 脱碳

Decarbonization means reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions that a society produces, as well as increasing the amount that is being absorbed. It entails changing many, if not all, aspects of the economy, from how energy is generated, to how goods and services are produced and delivered, to how buildings are built and how lands are managed.

脱碳意味着减少社会产生的温室气体排放,并增加吸收的量。这需要改变经济的许多方面,从能源生成方式到商品和服务的生产和交付方式,再到建筑和土地管理方式。

Deforestation 毁林

Conversion of forest to non-forest. For a discussion of the term forest and related terms such as afforestation, reforestation and deforestation, see the IPCC Special Report on Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (IPCC, 2000b). See also information provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 2013) and the report on Definitions and Methodological Options to Inventory Emissions from Direct Human-induced Degradation of Forests and Devegetation of Other Vegetation Types (IPCC, 2003).

指林地转变为非林地。有关森林这个术语以及对与之相关术语,如造林、再造林和毁林的讨论,参见《IPCC关于土地利用、土地利用变化与林业特别报告》(IPCC,2000b)。另见《 联合国气候变化框架公约》(UNFCCC,2013年)以及《IPCC 关于人类活动直接引起的森林和其它植被退化造成的温室气体排放清单的定义和方法学方案报告》(IPCC,2003年)所提供的信息。

Designated national authority(DNA) 指定国家机构

The body granted responsibility by a Party, among other things and where applicable, to issue a letter of approval with respect to CDM project activities or PoAs on behalf of that Party, in accordance with the CDM rules and requirements.

指定国家机构(DNA)是缔约方授权和批准参与清洁发展机制项目的组织。DNA的主要任务是评估潜在的清洁发展机制(CDM)项目,以确定它们是否有助于东道国实现可持续发展目标,并向CDM项目的参与方发放批准函。

Designated operational entity (DOE) 指定运营实体

An entity designated by the CMP, based on a recommendation by the Board, as qualified to validate proposed CDM project activities and PoAs, as well as verify and certify reported GHG emission reductions and net anthropogenic GHG removals by sinks.

由CMP根据董事会的建议指定的机构,具备验证拟议的清洁发展机制(CDM)项目活动和活动规划(PoAs),以及核查和认证报告的温室气体排放减少和由汇实现的净人为温室气体去除资格。

Direct emissions 直接排放

GHG emission within the boundary of the subject (organization or product), from GHG sources owned or controlled by the entity.

直接排放,来自实体所拥有或控制的温室气体源,发生在主体(组织或产品)边界内的温室气体排放。

E

Embodied carbon 碳隐藏

Embodied carbon—also known as embodied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions—refers to the amount of GHG emissions associated with upstream—extraction, production, transport, and manufacturing—stages of a product’s life. Many initiatives to track, disclose, and reduce embodied carbon emissions also consider emissions associated with the use of a product and its disposal.

隐含碳指的是与产品或材料在其全生命周期内相关的温室气体排放,这一概念最常被用于建筑行业,范围可以包括原材料提取、材料运输、材料浪费、建筑维护,以及建筑物停止使用后却继续产生的碳排放。联合国《2022年全球状况报告》显示,建筑业占全球碳排放总量的37%,其中大部分(28%)来自建筑运营时造成的能耗碳排放,这意味着还有9%的碳排放容易被忽略,隐含碳正是为了强调这部分隐含在材料和制造过程中的碳排放而提出的概念。

Emissions allowances 排放配额

Carbon allowances are issued by a government under an emissions cap-and-trade regulatory program. Each allowance (or emissions permit) typically allows its owner to emit one tonne of a pollutant such as CO₂e.Under a cap-and-trade system, the supply of GHG allowances is limited by the mandated ‘cap’. Allowances can be allocated freely by the governing program, be purchased when auctions are held, or be purchased from other entities that have excess.

碳配额是政府在排放上限和交易监管计划下发放的。每个配额(或排放许可证)通常允许其所有者排放一吨污染物,如CO₂e。在排放上限和交易系统中,温室气体配额的供应受到强制性的“上限”限制。这些配额可以由管理计划免费分配,也可以在拍卖时购买,或者从其他有剩余的实体那里购买。

Emission factor 排放因子

Emissions factors have long been the fundamental tool in developing national, regional, state, and local emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies.An emissions factor is a representative value that attempts to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the atmosphere with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. These factors are usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant (e.g., kilograms of particulate emitted per megagram of coal burned). Such factors facilitate estimation of emissions from various sources of air pollution.

排放因子长期以来一直是制定国家、地区、州和地方排放清单以进行空气质量管理决策和制定排放控制策略的基本工具。排放因子是一个代表性值,试图将释放到大气中的污染物的数量与与该污染物的释放相关的活动联系起来。这些因素通常表示为污染物的重量除以排放污染物的活动的单位重量、体积、距离或持续时间(例如,每兆燃煤排放的颗粒物千克数)。这些因素有助于估算各种空气污染源的排放量。

Emissions trading(ET) 排放交易

Parties with commitments under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Parties) have accepted targets for limiting or reducing emissions. These targets are expressed as levels of allowed emissions, or assigned amounts,at over the 2008-2012 commitment period. The allowed emissions are divided into assigned amount units (AAUs). Emissions trading, as set out in Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows countries that have emission units to spare - emissions permitted them but not "used" - to sell this excess capacity to countries that are over their targets. Thus, a new commodity was created in the form of emission reductions or removals. Since carbon dioxide is the principal greenhouse gas, people speak simply of trading in carbon. Carbon is now tracked and traded like any other commodity. This is known as the "carbon market". The other units which may be transferred under the scheme, each equal to one tonne of CO₂, may be in the form of: A removal unit (RMU) on the basis of land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities such as reforestation; An emission reduction unit (ERU) generated by a joint implementation project; A certified emission reduction (CER) generated from a clean development mechanism project activity.

根据《京都议定书》作出承诺的缔约方(附件 B 缔约方)已接受限制或减少排放的目标。这些目标以 2008 年至 2012 年承诺期内的允许排放水平或分配数量表示。允许的排放量分为分配数量单位(AAU)。 《京都议定书》第 17 条规定排放交易,允许国家将闲置排放单位(未使用的允许排放)出售给无法达到目标的国家。以减排或清除的形式创造了一种新商品,碳像任何其他商品一样被追踪和交易,这是所谓的“碳市场”。 碳市场的交易单位包括:去除单元(RMU):基于土地利用、土地利用变化和林业 (LULUCF) 重新造林等活动;减排单位(ERU):由联合执行项目产生;经认证的减排量 (CER):产生于清洁发展机制项目活动。

Emission scenario 排放情景

A plausible representation of the future development of emissions of substances that are potentially radiatively active (e.g., greenhouse gases (GHGs), aerosols) based on a coherent and internally consistent set of assumptions about driving forces (such as demographic and socio-economic development, technological change, energy and land use) and their key relationships. Concentration scenarios, derived from emission scenarios, are used as input to a climate model to compute climate projections.( In IPCC (1992) a set of emission scenarios was presented which were used as a basis for the climate projections in IPCC (1996). These emission scenarios are referred to as the IS92 scenarios. )

排放情景是对辐射有潜在作用的物质(如温室气体(GHG)、气溶胶) 未来排放趋势的合理表述,它是基于具有连贯性和内部协调性的驱动因素(如人口统计、社会经济发展、技术变革、能源和土地利用)及其相互之间重要联系所提出的一组假设。以排放情景为基础得到的浓度情景用作气候模式的输入项,以计算出气候预估结果。(IPCC(1992)提出的排放情景系列, 成为IPCC(1996)气候预估的基础,该系列排放情景被称作IS92情景系列。)

G

Gate to gate 从大门到大门

The emissions and removals attributable to a studied product while it is under the ownership or control of the reporting company.

表示在报告公司拥有或控制的情况下,与所研究产品相关的排放和去除。

Global warming 全球变暖

Global warming is an increase in the Earth’s average surface temperature that occurs when the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increases. These gases absorb more solar radiation and trap more heat, thus causing the planet to get hotter. Burning fossil fuels, cutting down forests, and farming livestock are some human activities that release greenhouse gases and contribute to global warming.

全球变暖是指当大气中温室气体的浓度增加时,地球平均表面温度升高的现象。这些气体吸收更多太阳辐射并捕获更多热量,从而使地球变得更热。燃烧化石燃料、砍伐森林和养殖牲畜是一些释放温室气体并导致全球变暖的人类活动。

Global warming potential(GWP) 全球变暖潜能

Index, based on radiative properties of greenhouse gases(GHGs) measuring the radiative forcing following a pulse emission of a unit mass of a given GHG in the present-day atmosphere integrated over a chosen time horizon, relative to that of carbon dioxide (CO₂). Note 1 to entry: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) publishes and regularly updates GWP values for various time horizons, including 20, 100 and 500 years.

全球变暖潜能,该指数基于温室气体(GHGs)的辐射特性,测量在当前大气条件下,相对于二氧化碳(CO₂),特定GHG单位质量的脉冲排放在选择的时间范围内产生的辐射强迫。 注释1:联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)定期发布不同时间范围内的全球增温潜势(GWP)值,包括20年、100年和500年。

Greenhouse gas GHG 温室气体

Gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the Earth’s surface, the atmosphere and clouds.

温室气体,大气中的气体成分,包括自然来源和人为排放的,能够在地球表面、大气层和云层发出的红外辐射谱段内吸收和辐射特定波长的辐射。

Greenhouse gas emissions 温室气体排放

Release of a GHG into the atmosphere.

向大气中释放温室气体。

Greenhouse gas programme(GHG programme) 温室气体项目

Voluntary or mandatory international, national or subnational system or scheme that registers, accounts or manages GHG emissions, GHG removals , GHG emission reductions or GHG removal enhancements.

自愿或强制性的国际、国家或次国家体系或计划,用于登记、核算或管理温室气体排放(GHG emissions)、温室气体去除(GHG removals)、温室气体减排(GHG emission reductions)或温室气体去除增强(GHG removal enhancements )。

Greenhouse gas emission reduction(GHG emission reduction) 温室气体减排

Decrease in GHG emissions quantified between two points in time or relative to a baseline.

温室气体排放(GHG emission)在两个时间点之间或相对于基准(baseline)减少的数量。

Greenhouse gas removal (GHG removal) 温室气体去除

Process that removes a GHG from the atmosphere. (Note 1 to entry: A process can be natural or anthropogenic.)

从大气中去除温室气体的过程(这个过程可以是自然的也可以是人为的)。

Greenhouse gas sink (GHG sink) 温室气体汇

Withdrawal of a GHG from the atmosphere by a GHG sink.(Note 1 to entry: Examples of ways in which GHG removals can be achieved include reforestation, carbon sequestration in soils, sustainable bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, and direct air carbon capture and storage.)

通过温室气体汇(GHG sink)从大气中吸收温室气体。(实现温室气体去除的方式包括重新造林、土壤中的碳封存、具有碳捕获和储存的可持续生物能源,以及直接空气碳捕获和储存。)

Greenwashing 漂绿

Greenwashing refers to situations where a company makes misleading claims about their positive environmental impact or the sustainability of their products and services to convince consumers that they are acting on climate change. In some cases, greenwashing can be unintentional, because of lack of knowledge on environmental issues. However, it can also be carried out intentionally as a marketing and public relations exercise, exploiting public support towards environmental policies for profit.

漂绿是指公司就其对气候变化采取的积极环保行动或其产品和服务的可持续性做出误导性宣称,以使消费者认为他们正在应对气候变化。在某些情况下,漂绿可能是无意的,因为缺乏对环境问题的了解。然而,它也可以作为一种营销和公共关系活动有意进行,利用公众对环保政策的支持来获利。

I

Indirect emissions 间接排放

GHG emission that is a consequence of, and within the boundary of, the subject , but that arises from GHG sources that are not owned or controlled by the entity. Note 1 to entry: These emissions occur generally in the upstream and/or downstream value chain of the subject.

间接排放,因主体而产生的温室气体排放,位于主体边界内,但源自实体未拥有或控制的温室气体源。(这些排放通常发生在主体的上游和/或下游价值链(value chain)中。)

Intergovernmental panel on climate change(IPCC) 气候变化政府间专门委员会

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an independent body founded under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The IPCC’s main role is to assess the scientific literature and findings on climate change and provide vital scientific information and evidenced-based recommendations to policymakers and the public. It is widely recognized as the most credible source of information related to the science of climate change and its complex analysis of impacts, risks, and adaptation and mitigation option.

气候变化政府间专门委员会(IPCC)是在世界气象组织(WMO)和联合国环境规划署(UNEP)的支持下成立的独立机构。 IPCC的主要职责是评估关于气候变化的科学文献和研究结果,并向决策者和公众提供重要的科学信息和基于证据的建议。它被广泛认为是有关气候变化科学及其对影响、风险以及适应和减缓选项复杂分析的最可靠信息源。

J

Joint implementation 联合履行

The mechanism known as "joint implementation", defined in Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows a country with an emission reduction or limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to earn emission reduction units (ERUs) from an emission-reduction or emission removal project in another Annex B Party, each equivalent to one tonne of CO₂, which can be counted towards meeting its Kyoto target. Joint implementation offers Parties a flexible and cost-efficient means of fulfilling a part of their Kyoto commitments, while the host Party benefits from foreign investment and technology transfer.

被称为“联合履行”的机制在《京都议定书》第6条中定义。该机制允许在《京都议定书》下具有排放减少或限制承诺的国家(附件B方)通过在另一个附件B方进行的减排或排放清除项目中获得等同于一吨CO₂的减排量单位(ERUs),这些单位可以计入其京都目标的达成。 联合实施为各方提供了一种灵活且成本效益的方式,用以履行其京都承诺的一部分,而且东道国可以从外国投资和技术转让中受益。

K

Kyoto protocol(KP) 京都议定书

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on 11 December 1997. Owing to a complex ratification process, it entered into force on 16 February 2005. Currently, there are 192 Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.In short, the Kyoto Protocol operationalizes the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by committing industrialized countries and economies in transition to limit and reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in accordance with agreed individual targets. The Convention itself only asks those countries to adopt policies and measures on mitigation and to report periodically. The Kyoto Protocol is based on the principles and provisions of the Convention and follows its annex-based structure. It only binds developed countries, and places a heavier burden on them under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities”, because it recognizes that they are largely responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere.In its Annex B, the Kyoto Protocol sets binding emission reduction targets for 37 industrialized countries and economies in transition and the European Union. Overall, these targets add up to an average 5 per cent emission reduction compared to 1990 levels over the five year period 2008–2012 (the first commitment period).

《京都议定书》于1997年12月11日获得通过。由于批准过程复杂,该公约于2005年2月16日生效。目前《京都议定书》有192个缔约方。简而言之,《京都议定书》通过使工业化国家和转型经济体承诺根据商定的具体目标限制和减少温室气体(GHG)排放,落实《联合国气候变化框架公约》。《公约》本身只要求这些国家采取减缓政策和措施,并定期报告。 京都议定书》以《公约》的原则和规定为基础,并遵循其基于附件的构架。它只对发达国家有约束力,并根据“共同但有区别的责任和各自能力”原则,要求发达国家承担更多责任,因为《京都议定书》认定发达国家对目前大气中温室气体排放量负有主要责任。《京都议定书》在其附件B中为37个工业化国家和转型经济体以及欧洲联盟设定了具有约束力的减排目标。总体而言,在2008年至2012年(第一承诺期)的五年时间里,这些目标将在1990年排放水平上平均减排5%。

L

Leakage 泄漏

Phenomena whereby the reduction in emissions (relative to a baseline) in a jurisdiction/sector associated with the implementation of mitigation policy is offset to some degree by an increase outside the jurisdiction/sector through induced changes in consumption, production, prices, land use and/or trade across the jurisdictions/sectors. Leakage can occur at a number of levels, be it a project, state, province, nation or world region. In the context of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS), CO₂ leakage refers to the escape of injected carbon dioxide (CO₂) from the storage location and eventual release to the atmosphere. In the context of other substances, the term is used more generically, such as for methane (CH₄) leakage (e.g., from fossil fuel extraction activities) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) leakage (e.g., from refrigeration and airconditioning systems).

在执行减缓政策时,某一辖区/部门(与某一基线相比较)减排量在某种程度上被该辖区/部门外的排放增加量所抵消的现象,而这种增排是由辖区/部门之间消费、生产、价格、土地利用和贸易的变化造成。无论是一个项目、一个州、一个省、一个国家,还是世界上的一个区域,多个层面都可能发生泄漏现象。 在二氧化碳捕获和封存(CCS)的介绍中,CO₂泄漏是指注入的二氧化碳(CO₂)从存储位置最终释放到大气中的逃逸。 在谈到其它物质的情况下,该术语涵盖的范围更宽泛,例如指甲烷(CH₄)泄漏(例如,从化石燃料的开采活动),和氢氟烃 (HFC)泄漏(例如,从制冷和空调系统)。

Life cycle 生命周期

Consecutive and interlinked stages related to a product, from raw material acquisition or generation from natural resources to end-of-life treatment. Note 1 to entry: “Raw material” is defined in ISO 14040:2006, 3.15. Note 2 to entry: Stages of a life cycle related to a product include raw material acquisition, production, distribution, use and end-of-life treatment.

与产品相关的连续且相互关联的阶段,从原材料采集或从自然资源生成到生命周期结束处理。 注1:"原材料"在ISO 14040:2006,3.15中有定义。 注2:与产品相关的生命周期阶段包括原材料采集、生产、分销、使用和生命周期结束处理。

Life cycle assessment (LCA) 生命周期评估

Compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. Note 1 to entry: “Environmental impact” is defined in ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.4.

对产品系统在其整个生命周期内的输入、输出和潜在环境影响进行汇编和评估。 注1:“环境影响”在ISO 14001:2015,3.2.4中有定义。

Long-term strategies (LTS) 长期战略

In the context of the international Paris Agreement on climate change, a long-term strategy is a formal document a country uses to communicate its plans for long-term low-emission development. Long-term strategies (also called “long-term low GHG emissions development strategies”) are central to achieving the goal of reaching net-zero emissions, limiting warming and preventing some of the worst impacts of climate change. Countries can use these strategies to set out long-term goals for climate and development and direct the short-term decision-making that is needed to achieve net-zero emissions and climate-resilient economies.

在国际气候变化《巴黎协定》的背景下,长期战略(也称为“长期低温室气体排放发展战略”)是一个国家用来传达其长期低排放发展计划的正式文件。 长期战略对于实现净零排放、限制变暖和防止气候变化的一些最严重影响的目标至关重要。各国可以利用这些战略制定气候与发展的长期目标,并指导实现净零排放和气候适应型经济所需的短期决策。

M

Mitigation 减缓

Climate change mitigation refers to any action taken by governments, businesses, or people to reduce or prevent greenhouse gas emissions, or to enhance carbon sinks that remove these gases from the atmosphere. Reducing or preventing greenhouse gas emissions can be achieved by transitioning to renewable energy sources like wind and solar, using energy more efficiently, adopting low carbon or carbon-free transportation modalities, promoting sustainable agriculture and land use, and changing production and consumption models and diet behaviors. Enhancing carbon sinks can be achieved by restoring forests, wetlands, and marshlands, maintaining soil health, and protecting terrestrial and marine ecosystem.

气候变化减缓指的是政府、企业或个人采取的任何行动,旨在减少或防止温室气体排放,或增强能够将这些气体从大气中去除的碳汇。 通过过渡到风能和太阳能等可再生能源、更有效地使用能源、采用低碳或无碳的交通方式、推动可持续农业和土地利用,以及改变生产和消费模式和饮食习惯,可以实现减少或防止温室气体排放。通过恢复森林、湿地和沼泽地、保持土壤健康以及保护陆地和海洋生态系统,可以增强碳汇。

N

Nationally determined contribution(NDC) 国家自主贡献

A term used under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) whereby a country that has joined the Paris Agreement outlines its plans for reducing its emissions. Some countries NDCs also address how they will adapt to climate change impacts, and what support they need from, or will provide to, other countries to adopt low-carbon pathways and to build climate resilience. According to Article 4 paragraph 2 of the Paris Agreement, each Party shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive NDCs that it intends to achieve. In the lead up to the 21st Conference of the Parties in Paris in 2015, countries submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs). As countries join the Paris Agreement, unless they decide otherwise, this INDC becomes their first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC).

“国家自主贡献”(Nationally Determined Contribution,NDC)是在联合国气候变化框架公约(UNFCCC)下使用的术语,用于描述已加入《巴黎协定》的国家关于减少排放计划的详细内容。一些国家的NDC还包括它们如何应对气候变化的影响,以及它们需要或将向其他国家提供何种支持,以采纳低碳途径并增强气候韧性。根据《巴黎协定》第4条第2款的规定,每一缔约方都应制定、传达和维护其打算实现的一系列NDC。在2015年巴黎协定第21次缔约方大会之前,各国提交了“国家自定贡献预案”(Intended Nationally Determined Contributions,INDCs)。随着国家加入《巴黎协定》,除非它们另有决定,否则这些INDC将成为它们的首次国家自主确定的贡献(NDC)。

National adaptation plans(NAPs) 国家适应计划

National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) help countries plan and implement actions to reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change and strengthen adaptive capacity and resilience. NAPs link to Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and other national and sectoral policies and programmes. For NAPs to be successful, they need to be participatory, inclusive, gender-responsive, and transparent. This means that at the design stage, NAPs need to evaluate the specific needs and vulnerabilities of different groups in the country, paying particular attention to those most vulnerable to climate change impacts and involving them in developing and implementing strategies and programmes.

国家适应计划(NAPs)帮助国家规划和实施行动,以减少对气候变化影响的脆弱性,增强适应能力和抵御力。NAPs与国家自主贡献(NDCs)以及其他国家和部门的政策和计划相连接。 国家行动方案要取得成功,就必须具有参与性、包容性、促进性别平等和透明度。这意味着在设计阶段,NAPs需要评估国家内不同群体的具体需求和脆弱性,特别关注那些最容易受到气候变化影响的人,并让他们参与制定和实施策略和计划。

Net zero 净零

Reaching net zero requires us to ensure that carbon dioxide emissions from human activity are balanced by human efforts to remove carbon dioxide emissions (for example, by creating carbon sinks to absorb carbon dioxide) - thereby stopping further increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Transitioning to net zero requires a complete transformation of our energy, transportation, and production and consumption systems. This is necessary to avert the worst consequences of climate change. To keep global warming below 1.5° C, the world’s governments need to ensure that all greenhouse gas emissions peak by 2025, and reach net zero in the second half of this century. The IPCC hasrecommended to reduce CO₂emissions globally by 45% before 2030(compared to 2010 levels) and reach net zero by mid-century.

净零排放要求我们确保人类活动的二氧化碳排放与人类清除二氧化碳排放的努力相平衡(例如,通过建立碳汇来吸收二氧化碳),从而阻止大气中温室气体浓度的进一步增加。 过渡到净零排放需要我们能源、交通以及生产和消费系统的彻底转型。这对于避免气候变化的最坏后果是必要的。 为了将全球变暖控制在1.5摄氏度以下,全球各国政府需要确保所有温室气体排放在2025年达到峰值,并在本世纪下半叶达到净零。IPCC建议在2030年之前全球将二氧化碳排放量减少45%(与2010年水平相比),并在本世纪中叶实现净零排放。

O

Offsetting 抵消

Counterbalancing of the carbon footprint, by retiring a carbon credit(s). Note 1 to entry: The final step in the process of offsetting is to retire the carbon credits in a public registry by, or on behalf of, the entity . Some registries use “to cancel” as synonymous with “to retire” and the terms are effectively interchangeable. The two terms “retire” and “cancel” result in the same outcome of ensuring that the carbon credits cannot be used again or be further traded.

通过注销碳信用(或碳信用)来抵消碳足迹。 注释1:抵消过程的最后一步是通过实体(entity)或代表实体在公共登记处(public registry)中注销碳信用。一些登记簿使用“取消”作为“注销”的同义词,这两个术语在实际中可以互换使用。这两个术语“注销”和“取消”都会产生相同的结果,确保碳信用不能再次使用或进行进一步的交易。

P

Paris Agreement 巴黎协定

The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty aiming to limit global warming to well below 2° C, preferably to 1.5° C, compared to pre-industrial levels. It was adopted by 196 Parties in 2015 at COP21 in Paris and entered into force in 2016. The Paris Agreement is a landmark achievement in international cooperation on climate change because it is a binding agreement for all Parties to scale up efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects. It also provides the instruments for developed nations to assist developing nations in their climate mitigation and adaptation efforts, while creating a framework for transparent monitoring and reporting of results.

《巴黎协定》是一项具有法律约束力的国际条约,旨在将全球变暖控制在比工业化前水平低2摄氏度以下,最好是1.5摄氏度以内。该协定于2015年在巴黎的第21次缔约方大会(COP21)上被196个缔约方通过,并于2016年生效。 《巴黎协定》是国际合作应对气候变化的里程碑成就,因为它是一个对所有缔约方都具有约束力的协定,要求它们加大应对气候变化和适应其影响的努力。它还为发达国家提供了协助发展中国家进行气候减缓和适应工作的工具,同时建立了一个透明监测和报告成果的框架。

Programme of activities(PoA) 活动规划

A voluntary coordinated action by a private or public entity which coordinates and implements any policy/measure or stated goal (i.e. incentive schemes and voluntary programmes) that leads to GHG emission reductions or net anthropogenic GHG removals by sinks that are additional to any that would occur in the absence of the PoA, via an unlimited number of CPAs.

指由私人或公共实体自愿协调并实施任何政策/措施或规定目标(即激励计划和自愿计划)的协调行动,该行动旨在通过无限数量的CPAs(承诺履行方案)实现温室气体减排或净人为温室气体去除,这些去除是相对于在没有该方案的情况下会发生的任何去除而言的。

Project participant 项目参与方

A Party involved, or a private and/or public entity authorized by the DNA of a Party involved, that participates in a CDM project activity or PoA, as applicable.

项目参与方,指参与一个清洁发展机制(CDM)项目活动或相应的项目设计文件(PoA)的一方,或者是由该一方的国家指定机构(DNA)授权的私人和/或公共实体。

Public registry 公共登记处

Information system that makes available to stakeholders details of carbon credits issued. Note 1 to entry: A public registry includes the serial numbers, ownership and retirement status of carbon credits. Note 2 to entry: A public registry can be maintained by a carbon crediting programme or by a third party.

向利益相关方提供已发行碳信用详细信息的信息系统。 注释1:公共登记簿包括碳信用(carbon credits)的序列号、所有权和注销状态。 注释2:公共登记簿可以由碳信用计划(carbon crediting programme)或第三方维护。

R

Reforestation 重新造林

Reforestation is the process of replanting trees in areas that had recent tree cover but where forests were lost, due to wildfires, drought, disease, or human activity such as agricultural clearing.

是在曾经有树木覆盖但由于野火、干旱、疾病或人类活动(如农业清理)而失去森林的区域重新种植树木的过程。

Remaining carbon budget 剩余碳预算

Estimated cumulative net global anthropogenic CO₂emissions from the start of 2018 to the time that anthropogenic CO₂emissions reach net zero that would result, at some probability, in limiting global warming to a given level, accounting for the impact of other anthropogenic emissions.

这是指自2018年初至人为CO₂排放净零的时间,经过一定概率考虑其他人为排放的影响,估计的全球人为CO₂累积净排放量,以限制全球变暖在某个特定水平。

Registration 注册

The formal acceptance by the Board of a proposed CDM project activity or PoA validated by a DOE as a CDM project activity or PoA, as applicable. Registration is the prerequisite for the verification, certification and issuance of CERs, lCERs or tCERs, as applicable, related to that CDM project activity or PoA.

注册,指执行理事会(ED)或国家规定的管理机构正式接受一个经确认合格的项目活动为一项碳汇交易机制项目活动。注册是核实、核证及颁发与这一项目活动相关的经核证排减量(CERs) 、国家核证减排量(CCER)的先决条件。

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) 减少毁林和森林退化所致排放量

An effort to create financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development (SD). It is therefore a mechanism for mitigation that results from avoiding deforestation. REDD+ goes beyond reforestation and forest degradation and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. The concept was first introduced in 2005 in the 11th Session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) in Montreal and later given greater recognition in the 13th Session of the COP in 2007 at Bali and inclusion in the Bali Action Plan which called for ‘policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD) and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stock in developing countries’. Since then, support for REDD has increased and has slowly become a framework for action supported by a number of countries.

为发展中国家提供激励措施,使其减少森林土地的排放,并投资于低碳可持续发展(SD)路径,从而为储存在森林中的碳创造金融价值的做法,所以也是一种通过避免毁林实现减缓的机制。 REDD+比再造林和森林退化更为广泛,包括森林保护和可持续管理及加强森林碳储存的作用。这个概念第一次提出是在2005年蒙特利尔召开的第11次缔约方大会(COP)上,2007年在巴厘岛召开的第13次COP更加认可了这个概念并将其纳入了“巴厘岛行动计划”,呼吁制定“关于减少发展中国家毁林和森林退化所致排放量(REDD)和发展中国家森林保护、森林可持续管理及加强森林碳储存作用相关事务的政策方法和积极的激励措施”。从那之后,对REDD的支持力度加大而且慢慢变成了一个由许多国家支持的行动框架。

Regenerative agriculture 再生农业

Regenerative agriculture is a way of farming that nurtures and restores soil health, and therefore reduces water use, prevents land degradation, and promotes biodiversity. By minimizing land ploughing, practicing rotating crops, and using animal manure and compost, regenerative agriculture ensures that the soil stores more carbon, conserves more moisture, and is healthier due to thriving fungal communities. Intensive agriculture is responsible for a third of global greenhouse gas emissions, uses 70 percent of the fresh water we consume, and leads to soil degradation through its use of heavy machinery, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides. It is also the biggest contributor to biodiversity loss. By contrast, regenerative agriculture helps lower greenhouse gas emissions, conserves water, and restores land. Moreover, healthy soil produces more food and better nutrition and has other positive impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity.

再生农业是一种培育和恢复土壤健康的耕作方式,从而降低水使用量,防止土地退化,促进生物多样性。通过减少耕地、轮作农作物以及使用动物粪便和堆肥,再生农业确保土壤储存更多碳,保留更多湿气,并因繁茂的菌群而更健康。 密集农业占据全球温室气体排放的三分之一,使用了我们消耗的淡水的70%,并通过使用重型机械、化学肥料和杀虫剂导致土壤退化。它也是生物多样性丧失的最大原因。相比之下,再生农业有助于降低温室气体排放,节约水资源并恢复土地。此外,健康的土壤能产生更多的食物和更好的营养,对生态系统和生物多样性产生其他积极影响。

Resilience 复原力

Climate resilience is the capacity of a community or environment to anticipate and manage climate impacts, minimize their damage, and recover and transform as needed after the initial shock.

气候复原力是指社区或环境在最初的冲击后,预测和管理气候影响、最大限度地减少其损害以及根据需要恢复和转变的能力。

Report period 报告期

Specific historical period selected for the determination of carbon neutrality

报告期,用于确定碳中和的特定时期。

S

Scope 1 - Direct GHG emissions 范围一 直接温室气体排放

A reporting organization’s direct GHG emissions, for example, emissions from combustion in owned or controlled boilers, furnaces, vehicles, etc.; emissions from chemical production in owned or controlled process equipment.

企业直接排放的温室气体,例如公司拥有或控制的锅炉、熔炉、 车辆等产生的燃烧排放 ;拥有或控制的工艺设备进行化工生产所产生的排放。

Scope 2 - Electricity indirect GHG emissions 范围二 电力产生的间接温室气体排放

A reporting organization’s emissions associated with the generation of electricity, heating/ cooling, or steam purchased for own consumption.

企业外购电力、供热 / 制冷,或蒸汽自用而产生的间接排放量。

Scope 3 - Other indirect GHG emissions 范围三 其他间接温室气体排放

Scope 3 is an optional reporting category that allows for the treatment of all other indirect emissions. Scope 3 emissions are a consequence of the activities of the company, but occur from sources not owned or controlled by the company. Some examples of scope 3 activities are extraction and production of purchased materials; transportation of purchased fuels; and use of sold products and services.

除了范围二以外的其他间接温室气体排放量。例如,开采和生产采购的原料、运输采购的燃料,以及售出产品和服务的使用。

Science Based Targets initiative(SBTi) 科学基准目标倡议

The Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi) is a global body enabling businesses and financial institutions to set ambitious emissions reductions targets in line with climate science. It is focused on accelerating companies across the world to halve emissions before 2030 and achieve net-zero emissions before 2050. The initiative is a collaboration between four of the world’s most respected environmental organizations: CDP, the United Nations (UN) Global Compact, World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), and one of the We Mean Business Coalition commitments. The SBTi defines and promotes best practice in science-based target (SBT) setting, offers resources and guidance to reduce barriers to adoption, and independently assesses and approves companies’ targets.

科学基准目标倡议(SBTi)是一个全球性机构,使企业和金融机构能够根据气候科学设定雄心勃勃的减排目标。其重点是推动全球各公司在2030年之前将排放减半,并在2050年之前实现净零排放。 该倡议是由全球四个最受尊敬的环保组织共同合作发起的,包括CDP、联合国全球契约、世界资源研究所(WRI)和世界自然基金会(WWF),以及We Mean Business Coalition的承诺之一。 SBTi明确并推动科学基准目标(SBT)设定的最佳实践,提供资源和指导以减少采用的障碍,并独立评估和批准公司的目标。

Sustainable development goals Goals(SDGs)可持续发展目标

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity. The 17 SDGs are integrated—they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability. Countries have committed to prioritize progress for those who're furthest behind. The SDGs are designed to end poverty, hunger, AIDS, and discrimination against women and girls.

2015年,联合国通过了被称为可持续发展目标(SDGs)或全球目标的倡议,作为结束贫困、保护地球和确保到2030年所有人享有和平与繁荣的普遍行动呼吁。 这17个可持续发展目标(SDGs)是相互关联的——它们承认在一个领域采取的行动会影响其他领域的结果,并且发展必须在社会、经济和环境可持续性之间取得平衡。 各国承诺优先考虑那些处于最贫困状况的人们的进展。SDGs的目标旨在消除贫困、饥饿、艾滋病,以及消除对妇女和女孩的歧视。

T

Tipping point 临界点

A tipping point is a threshold after which certain changes caused by global warming and climate change become irreversible, even if future interventions are successful in driving down average global temperatures. These changes may lead to abrupt and dangerous impacts with very serious implications for the future of humanity and our planet. As the world gets hotter, several tipping points are becoming very likely. One of them is the collapse of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets, which would lead to significant sea level rise and threaten coastal communities and ecosystems. Another is the thawing of the permafrost in the tundra regions, which will release huge quantities of trapped greenhouse gases, further accelerating global warming and climate change. Mass coral bleaching events and the destruction of rainforests are two other major tipping points with immense implications for both biodiversity and human societies.

临界点是指全球变暖和气候变化引起的某些变化在超过某一阈值后变得不可逆,即使未来的干预能够成功降低全球平均温度。这些变化可能导致突然且危险的影响,对人类和地球的未来产生非常严重的影响。

Transparency 透明

Under the Paris Agreement, countries must regularly report on the implementation of their Nationally Determined Contributions. It is crucial that this reporting is done with transparency to allow the global community to accurately assess collective progress and build trust that everyone is playing their part. Transparent reporting allows governments and international bodies to have access to reliable data and make evidence-based decisions. It also enhances our scientific understanding of climate change and the actions and policies needed to mitigate it and adapt to its impacts. Ultimately, transparency is key to unlocking the full potential of the Paris Agreement, by promoting trust, collaboration and knowledge transfer and encouraging further ambition on climate targets.

根据《巴黎协定》,各国必须定期报告其国家自主贡献的实施情况。至关重要的是,这些报告保证透明,以便全球社区能够准确评估集体进展并建立信任,确保每个国家都在履行其责任。 透明的报告使政府和国际组织能够获得可靠的数据,并做出基于证据的决策。它还增强了我们对气候变化及其减缓和适应所需的行动和政策的科学理解。归根结底,透明度是释放《巴黎协定》全部潜力的关键,它可以促进信任、合作和知识转移,并鼓励在气候目标上进一步采取雄心勃勃的行动。

U

UNFCCC 联合国气候变化框架公约

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty adopted in 1992 to combat dangerous human interference with the climate system. It entered into force in 1994 and enjoys near universal membership, having been signed by 198 parties. It is the parent treaty of both the Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol. The UNFCCC secretariat is the United Nations entity tasked with supporting the global response to the threat of climate change. The secretariat facilitates intergovernmental climate change negotiations by organizing between two and four negotiating sessions each year, the largest and most important of which is the Conference of the Parties (COP). It also provides technical expertise and assists in the analysis and review of climate change information and maintains the registry of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC).

《联合国气候变化框架公约》(UNFCCC)是一项于1992年通过的国际环境条约,旨在打击人类对气候系统的危险干预。该公约于1994年生效,几乎得到了全球范围内的普遍参与,已被198个缔约方签署。它是《巴黎协定》和《京都议定书》的母公约(parent treaty)。 UNFCCC秘书处是联合国负责支持全球应对气候变化威胁的实体。秘书处通过每年组织两到四次磋商会议(其中最大、最重要的是缔约方大会COP)来促进政府间的气候变化谈判。它还提供技术专业知识,协助分析和审查气候变化信息,并维护《国家自主贡献》(NDC)的注册表。